Traditional interventions are expected to become difficult to sustain under high-end climate scenarios. Natural (BwN) solutions are better able to cope with varying wave conditions and rising sea-levels due to lower energy needs and costs associated to their implementation. This reality has given rise to efforts to make greater use of ecosystem-based approaches to reduce risks from coastal storms. These approaches draw from the capacity of wetlands, beaches and dunes, biogenic reefs, and other natural features to reduce the impacts of storm surge and waves. In addition to providing engineering functions related to reducing risks from coastal storms, Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) can provide a range of additional ecosystem services, including those supporting coastal ecosystems and communities.
A true systems approach to coastal risk reduction and resilience requires consideration of the full range of functions, services, and benefits produced by coastal projects and NNBF.